The future of broadband is constantly developing with exciting new technologies and innovation.
Cable Broadband Providers Aid the State’s Economy and Provides Quality Jobs
NCTA- The Internet and Television Association commissioned an analysis of direct and impact of the cable operator industry on employment, personal income and gross out in 2020. The report finds that the cable operator industry is an integral provider of broadband and other communications and entertainment services to both consumers and businesses. Through its consistent investment of capital and its efforts to deploy new and innovative services, the cable operator industry has fostered the development of a highly competitive communications marketplace and has been a catalyst for broadband growth in California and the United States. As a result of these investment and innovation initiatives, the cable operator industry has had a substantial impact on the California economy.
Total jobs Created
Cable Operator Employees
Below are answers to frequently asked questions necessary to form a foundational understanding of broadband availability and service in California.
The term broadband commonly refers to high-speed Internet access, which is currently benchmarked by the Federal Communication Commission at download speeds of 25 Megabits per second and 3 Megabits per second that is always on and faster than the traditional dial-up access. Broadband includes several high-speed transmission technologies such as:
• Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
• Hybrid Fiber Coaxial
• Broadband over Powerline (BPL)
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
DSL is a wireline transmission technology that transmits data faster over traditional copper telephone lines already installed to homes and businesses. DSL-based broadband provides transmission speeds ranging from several hundred Kbps to millions of bits per second (Mbps). The availability and speed of your DSL service may depend on the distance from your home or business to the closest telephone company facility.
Hybrid Fiber Coaxial
Cable operators globally employ Hybrid Fiber Coaxial (HFC) cable in their broadband networks. Hybrid fiber coaxial is used for delivering video, telephony, voice telephony, data and other interactive services over coaxial and fiber optic cables. Cable modems are then utilized to connect a home or business to the closet network facility using the same coaxial fiber cables that deliver pictures and sound to a television.
Fiber optic technology converts electrical signals carrying data to light and sends the light through transparent glass fibers about the diameter of a human hair. The actual speed you experience will vary depending on a variety of factors, such as how close to your computer the service provider brings the fiber and how the service provider configures the service, including the amount of bandwidth used. The same fiber providing your broadband can also simultaneously deliver voice (VoIP) and video services, including video-on-demand. Variations of the technology run the fiber all the way to the customer’s home or business, to the curb outside, or to a location somewhere between the provider’s facilities and the customer, like a node which is the location within an HFC network at which the light signal traveling over a glass fiber is translated into an RF signal traveling over coaxial cable.
Wireless broadband connects a home or business to the Internet using a radio link between the customer’s location and the service provider’s facility. Wireless broadband can be mobile or fixed. Wireless broadband Internet access services offered over fixed networks allow consumers to access the Internet from a fixed point while stationary and often require a direct line-of-sight between the wireless transmitter and receiver. These services have been offered using both licensed spectrum and unlicensed devices.
Satellite broadband is another form of wireless broadband, and is also useful for serving remote or sparsely populated areas. Downstream and upstream speeds for satellite broadband depend on several factors, including the consumer’s line of sight to the orbiting satellite, and the weather.
Broadband over Powerline (BPL)
BPL is the delivery of broadband over the existing low- and medium-voltage electric power distribution network. BPL can be provided to homes using existing electrical connections and outlets. BPL is an emerging technology that is available in very limited areas. Source: Federal Communication Commission, Types of Broadband Connections https://www.fcc.gov/general/types-broadband-connections
Broadband Internet access is an interstate information service that the FCC has determined should be free of common-carrier regulation, a classification and policy judgment that has been affirmed by the courts.
Under California law, the Public Utilities Commission’s jurisdiction extends only to specifically defined public utilities. Any additional authority to regulate must come from an express grant by the legislature. Notably, the California Public Utilities Code does not grant the Commission the authority to regulate broadband providers as a public utility. See Pub. Util. Code § 216(a)(1) (broadband providers not listed among entities subject to public utility regulation).
Regarding cable facilities used for the delivery of Broadband, California law grants the Public Utilities Commission authority over the operation of cable systems for safety purposes See Pub. Util. Code § 768.5 and the authority to settle disputes between public utilities and cable operators regarding rates, terms, or conditions for pole attachments or conduit occupancy See Pub. Util. Code § 767.5. The Public Utilities Commission also acts as the state franchising authority for video service providers. However, state law also provides that a holder of a state franchise shall not be deemed a public utility as a result of providing video services under the video franchise provision of the law See Pub. Util. Code § 401 et al.
The 10G platform is a combination of technologies that will deliver internet speeds at 10 gigabits per second, which is 10 times faster than today’s networks. Not only does 10G provide faster symmetrical speeds, but also lower latencies, enhanced reliability and better security in a scalable manner.
Fixed-line telecommunications commonly refer to the wired networks that support fixed broadband and telephone services. These forms of communication can be viewed as a connection to an end customer using a cable, through which the user can connect to the internet or make a phone call. Fixed data, or fixed broadband, involves the use of a variety of technologies for any high-speed data transmission to a residence or a business. Methods of transmission include cable modem internet, digital subscriber line (DSL) internet, fiber optic cable, and other fixed broadband technology connections. A landline telephone, or fixed phone line, is a telephone that transmits signals using metal wire or fiber optic cable, as opposed to wireless transmission as seen in mobile phones.
Network latency is the time that elapses between a request for information and its arrival. Because it takes time for a signal to pass through wire or fiber, some latency will always be present, but slow servers, inefficient data packing and excessive network hopping across vast geographic distances can increase delays. One of the main causes of high latency is the increasing demand for attention from various applications competing to use the network, which occurs when too many people are streaming, chatting and playing on their personal devices over the same network at the same time.
“Middle-mile” facilities: are those facilities that connect from the core network to the regional plant—in a hybrid fiber coaxial network, this would be the segment of the network from the core network to, and including, the distribution hubs.
“Last-mile” facilities refer to the segment of the network that connects the regional plant to the end-user—in a hybrid fiber coaxial network, last-mile is the portion of the network from the distribution hub to the end user. For more information visit https://www.ncta.com/whats-new/the-last-mile-explained
Fifth-generation wireless (5G) is the latest iteration of cellular technology, engineered to greatly increase the speed and responsiveness of wireless networks. The “G” in 5G (generation) is entirely different than the “G” in 10G (gig). With 5G, data transmitted over wireless broadband connections can travel at multigigabit speeds. 5G will enable a sharp increase in the amount of data transmitted over wireless systems due to more available bandwidth and advanced antenna technology.
In the past 65 years, cable infrastructure has evolved from providing television services to remote communities to the nation’s preeminent means of providing access to broadband services and applications. Today, cable broadband provides video entertainment, high-speed internet, digital telephone service, and more to millions of California consumers.